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Silicon

Basic information of Si

                     Element
Silicon
Density
2328.3 kg/m3
Hardness
6.5
Melting Point
1410+/-5°
Boiling Point
2900+/-5°
Purity
99.99999%
Transmittance
>54% @ 3-5 um 25°
Refractive index
3.42
Mohs number
7.0

As a kind of nonmetallic element, Silicon is broadly used in semiconductor and optics.

In semiconductor, Si is usually grown by Czachralski method and Float-zone process. Generally, the resistivity of Si grown by Czachralsik method(< 10 ohm/cm) is lower than that by Float-zone process(>10 ohm/cm). Besides, it can also be classified into N type(with Phos doped) and P type (with Boron doped) according to the conductivity.

In infrared optics, we commonly use Float-zone(FZ) silicon which is much pure for the purpose of better transmittance. It is the most economical element for optics compared to Ge and other infrared materials like ZnSe, ZnS, etc. From fig. 1, we can see that the transmittance is generally the same between 3-8 um and arrives at the bottom at 9 um. With AR coatings, the transmittance can reach 95% and higher from Fig 2.


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